Evaluation

Progress monitoring is used to assess student’s performance or responsiveness to intervention as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction and intervention. When additional intervention is being provided in Tier 2, the effectiveness of the intervention should be monitored to ensure that it is helping the student reach a goal. This is accomplished through frequent data collection. Progress monitoring tools should be sensitive to change. While the universal screening tool measures student internalizing and externalizing behaviors, progress monitoring must be conducted with measures that are specific to measuring the student’s identified behavior need and growth toward their goal.

Progress monitoring in Tier 2 may include:

  • Intervention artifacts
  • Observations
  • Data sheets

Data-Based Decision Making: Teachers must have knowledge and set goals for each child. Expected growth can be determined by monitoring progress of the student toward the end goal. Teachers use the data from progress monitoring to make good instructional decisions. 

Many intervention program materials provide examples and resources for ways to monitor progress of students based on the interventions being provided. Teams will meet to analyze data, measure the effectiveness of interventions, and check student progress toward goals. A plan will be in place for when students are and are not making adequate progress within Tier 2. If students are not making adequate progress in Tier 2, the intervention may need to be changed. Students should have at least four data points to make a data based decision. Only one or two variables should be changed at a time to measure effectiveness of the change. A change in intervention will be considered within each tier before moving to the next tier of intervention. Changes may include: 

  • increasing frequency of intervention sessions; 
  • changing interventions; 
  • changing intervention provider; and 
  • changing time of day intervention is delivered. 

Students receiving Tier 2 interventions typically require interventions beyond what can be provided in Tier I alone. During this extended support in Tier II intervention, a student’s progress should be monitored closely so that changes to the intervention can be made. The student’s progress should guide the RTI²-B leadership team in making these changes to the intervention. 

The district and school-wide RTI²-B leadership teams should consult with their district level RTI²-B coach or their TBSP provider to request support or training for conducting FBAs, developing behavior intervention plans, selecting and using behavioral progress monitoring tools, and establishing decision rules for Tier 3.

Data collection is crucial for predicting problems that are not solely academic or behavioral in nature. Problems in one area may serve as an effective screener for problems in another. The student age or grade level may determine the degree to which particular data is considered.  For example, in kindergarten, it is rare for students to receive a formal office discipline referral.  The teacher either addresses the behavior or escorts the student to the office to discuss the problem with the principal to help facilitate the conversation with the student. Given the low rates of kindergarten ODRs, teams should consider other sources of data proven to help predict behavioral problems such as kindergarten reading deficits (McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Boland,& Good, 2006; McIntosh, Sadler, & Brown, 2009). However, in middle school and high school, it is more common for students to receive a formal office referral, and rarely are they escorted to the office by the teacher. For students older than kindergarten, ODR data may indicate whether the student has difficulty interacting with peers or teachers and which school settings should be targeted for additional support.